Mélanie Meynier-Philip / Quel avenir pour les églises paroissiales françaises?

Entre valeur affective et valeur d’usage, quel avenir pour les églises paroissiales françaises?

La région urbaine de Lyon – Saint-Étienne interrogée par le référentiel du « Plan églises » québécois

Thèse en architecture sous la direction de Vincent Veschambre
16 novembre 2018 à 14h / Amphithéâtre de l’ENSA-Lyon

Depuis les années 2000, des réflexions sur le devenir du patrimoine religieux émergent dans les champs du droit, de l’histoire, de l’architecture et du patrimoine. L’origine de cette problématique s’explique à la fois par la baisse de la pratique des cultes historiques depuis les années 1960, essentiellement catholique en France, et par le manque de moyens humains et financiers de l’Église, aboutissant à l’apparition de véritables « friches religieuses ». Ce processus lié à la sécularisation des sociétés a vocation à s’amplifier car ces deux facteurs qui le génèrent s’accroissent mutuellement. Si les couvents, les monastères, les séminaires et autres institutions religieuses catholiques ont déjà été impactés par ce phénomène, ce sont les églises paroissiales qui aujourd’hui perdent leur usage. Cette situation se rapproche de celle qu’a connue le Québec, dont les contextes historique et juridique ont accéléré la mutation des églises et abouti à la mise en place d’un « Plan églises » qui tente de conserver celles-ci en les transformant.
Dans cette thèse, ce programme pionnier est utilisé dans la région urbaine Lyon Saint-Étienne, comme grille de lecture et comme force de proposition pour éclairer la situation et générer des méthodes adaptées au contexte français.
La première partie pose les bases de connaissances (patrimoniale et juridique) sur les églises paroissiales québécoises et françaises, pour permettre une mise en perspective des deux contextes.
La deuxième partie est une étude observationnelle visant à définir le territoire et à inventorier le corpus de 429 édifices pour dégager des enseignements généralisables. Après avoir distingué trois grands types (églises « historique », « XIXe » et « XXe »), nous analysons plus précisément les reconversions relevées dans le corpus, pour discuter les compatibilités entre l’usage cultuel et ces nouveaux usages, puis formuler des hypothèses d’interventions architecturales adaptées, en recourant à des théories de la restauration.
La troisième partie est une étape interventionnelle de type « recherche-action ». Trois cas d’étude représentatifs de chaque type d’église paroissiale ont été sélectionnés, à Montarcher, Givors et Villeurbanne.  Pour chacune, une démarche participative a été mise en place avec la municipalité, les habitants et les associations, pour proposer des scénarios de reconversion adaptés au besoin locaux.
Il ressort de cette recherche que la démolition des églises paroissiales, généralement perçues comme un bien commun, menace la transmission des identités locales. Il apparaît donc essentiel de porter une réflexion globale sur l’évolution de ce patrimoine en prenant en compte les problématiques territoriales, les revendications citoyennes et la diversité architecturale de ces édifices. Nous montrons que l’architecte, de par son expertise à la fois technique et sensible du lieu, peut jouer un rôle central dans la mise en action cette réflexion.

JURY
Anne Fornerod, Chargée de recherche C.N.R.S HDR, Université de Strasbourg, rapporteure
Luc Noppen, Professeur à l’Université du Québec à Montréal, rapporteur
Catherine Blain, Ingénieure de recherche LACTH, ENSAP de Lille
Marie-Agnès Gilot, Maîtresse de conférences à l’ENSA de Saint-Étienne
Sven Sterken, Professeur associé à la Faculté d’Architecture de l’Université de Louvain
Vincent Veschambre, Professeur des ENSA en détachement

LIEU
16 novembre 2018 à 14h
Amphithéâtre de l’École nationale supérieure d’architecture de Lyon (3 rue Maurice Audin 69120 Vaulx-en-Velin)

507 réflexions sur « Mélanie Meynier-Philip / Quel avenir pour les églises paroissiales françaises? »

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